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About Shanghai
The 1st Asia Pacific Congress on
Controversies to Consensus in Diabetes, Obesity and Hypertension (CODHy)
Shanghai, China, June 2-5, 2011
 
  Diet and Exercise Print

OBESITY RELATIONSHIP WITH NON- EXERCISE ESTIMATION OF CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCE IN YOUNG ASYMPTOMATIC MALES AND FEMALES

M.A. Alomari (1), D.M. Shqair (2), K. Alawneh (3), O.F. Khabour (4), M.E. Nazzal (5), E.F. Keewan (6)

1 Division of Physical Therapy, Department of Allied Medical Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan

2 Department of Nutrition, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan

3 Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, King Abdulla Hospital

4 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan

5 Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan

6 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan

 

Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) diseases (CVD), a component of the metabolic syndrome, and a leading cause of death in the world. The direct measure of CV endurance (CVE) has been recommended to be used in the screening for CVD in asymptomatic individuals. The non-exercise model (NM) to estimate CVE (NMCVE) has been proposed as an alternative for the direct measure. However no studies have examined the relationship of obesity with NMCVE. Therefore, the study examined the relationships of obesity measures with NMCVE. Weight(wgt), percent body fat(%BF), waist(WC), and hip(HC) circumferences, WC and HC ratio(WHR), and body mass index(BMI) were used as measures of obesity. The equation used to estimate CVE was: VO2max=[Gender(female=0; male=1)*2.77]-[Age*0.10]-[BMI*0.17]-[resting HR*0.03]+[PA level*1]+18.07. Subsequently, the relationships between obesity measures and NMCVE were examined in 188 asymptomatic males and females. The participants' NMCVE correlated significantly (p>0.05) with wgt, %BF, muscle mass, body water content, WC, HC, WHR in the males (r=0.2-0.7) and females (r=0.2-0.7). Additionally, the ANOVA (p>0.05) revealed significant difference in wgt, BMI, %BF, muscle mass, body water content, WC, and HC between the NMCVE low, moderate, and high groups. This is the first study to report relationships between NMCVE and obesity measures. These results confirm the relationship between obesity and CVE using the direct measures, suggesting the importance of maintaining aerobic endurance for weight control. Additionally, since obesity measures are established risk factors and components of metabolic syndrome these relationships further enhance the value of the non-exercise model thus can be used in scientific and clinical settings.

 

EFFECT OF TWO DIETS OF VARYING FOOD INSULIN INDEX (FII) ON DAY-LONG (8-HOUR) PROFILE OF INSULIN SECRETION

J. Bao (1), F. Atkinson (1), P. Petocz (2), J. Brand-Miller (1)

1 Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition & Exercise, the University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

2 Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia

 

Objective: Prolonged or high degrees of postprandial insulinemia are linked to epidemics of diabetes, obesity and other metabolic abnormalities. This study aimed to investigate the insulinemic effects of two diets with similar marcronutrients, fibre and GIs but disparate food insulin index (FII) over the course of a whole day.

Methods: 10 lean, healthy subjects consumed a high and a low FII diet in a randomised, crossover design, consisting of three meals in two separate days. Two diets were matched for macronutrients, fiber and GIs but had different insulin demand assessed by FII (65 vs. 30). Capillary blood was sampled every 30 minutes from 08:30 until 16:30 and assayed for glucose and insulin.

Results: The insulin mean incremental areas under the curve (AUC) during the day the low FII diet was ingested was more than 50% lower than on the day of high FII diet (low FII diet: 32±4 nmol/L*min vs high FII diet: 68±11 nmol/L*min, P = 0.003) whereas there was no significant difference in glucose response (AUC) (low FII diet: 330±88 VS high FII diet: 387±70 mmol/L*min, P = 0.73). Mean fasting insulin and glucose concentrations didn’t differ significantly on both days (P=0.069 and 0.066, respectively).

Conclusions: This study provides the first clinical evidence of the physiological validity of the concept of food insulin index as a measure of day-long glucose and insulin profiles in a whole-diet context in lean, young healthy subjects.

 

DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD INSULIN INDEX (FII)

J. Bao (1), F. Atkinson (1), P. Petocz (2), W. Willett (3), J. Brand-Miller (1)

1 Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition & Exercise, the University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

2 Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia

3 Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, USA

 

Objectives: A greater understanding of dietary insulin demand is important in the management of diabetes. Carbohydrate counting and glycemic index leave out a majority of non-carbohydrate foods in terms of predicting insulin responses. We developed a food-insulin-index (FII) for ranking iso-energetic foods (1000 kJ) according to insulin demand and systematically gathered available data.

Methods: Published and unpublished data were collected between 1997 and 2008. To date, there are 120 data entries, for nine categories of foods, all tested in 10 healthy subjects. Correlations between FII values and nutrients were examined.

Results: Significant differences in FII values were noted within and between food categories. Within food groups, insulin demand varied over a two-fold range among the vegetable group and over a 20-fold range among the fruit group. Carbohydrate, protein and fat, but not fibre, were related to insulin responses (r = 0.68, - 0.26 and - 0.51, p < 0.01).

Conclusion: The FII database may be helpful in exploring relationships between insulin demand and diabetes and related complications.

 

DOES EXERCISE SELF-EFFICACY MEDIATE THE GENDER- EXERCISE MAINTENANCE RELATIONSHIP IN CORONARY HEART DISEASE PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT DIABETES?

S.E. Guo (1)

1 Department of Nursing & the Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Research Center, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taiwan

 

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of exercise maintenance during the 6-month period after completion of a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program in patients with and without diabetes.

METHOD: Subjects (n = 110) in this analysis were drawn from the larger clinical study of adults who had completed a CR program after myocardial infraction, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and/or angioplasty. Exercise maintenance, the total number of hours spent exercising over the 6-month period, was collected using portable wristwatch heart rate monitors (during exercise), and activity diaries for 6 months. All data were collected and analyzed by hierarchical multiple regression.

RESULTS: The major determinants of exercise maintenance were explained using factors from the Social Problem Solving Model when controlling for covariates (age, race, education, retirement, co-morbidity, and fitness). Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated exercise self-efficacy and gender predicted statistically lifestyle exercise. Twenty-two percent of the variance in exercise amount was explained [F (9, 100) = 4.37, p< .001] by race, gender, education, retirement status, diabetes status, fitness, pain, and self-efficacy. Exercise self-efficacy was a significant mediator of the relationship between gender and exercise maintenance. Diabetes, gender, and exercise benefits/barriers associated with exercise self-efficacy after control age, education, race, and pain.

CONCLUSIONS: Health care providers must be aware of the importance of self-efficacy and employ techniques to increase it, thereby enhancing exercise in CHD patients. Further research is needed to fully understand exercise maintenance and self-efficacy in CHD population with diabetes and among men and women.

 

INHIBITORY POTENTIAL OF DIETARY FIBER ON KEY ENZYMES OF CARBOHYDRATE-LIPID DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION IN PANCREAS OF DIABETES RATS

K. Hamden (1), A. Elfeki (2)

1 Biotechnology High School of Sfax (ISBS) Soukra, Tunisia

2 Animal Ecophysiology Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax, Tunisia

 

Diabetes is a serious health problem and a source of risk for numerous severe complications such as obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Treatment of diabetes and its related diseases can be achieved by stimulating insulin secretion and/or activity and inhibiting key digestives enzymes of oligosaccharides and lipid secreted by intestine. Dietary fiber, was proven to possess interesting for the treatment of diabetes and its complications. The findings revealed that Dietary fiber as galactomanan considerable inhibited key enzymes-related to diabetes responsible of conversion of oligosaccharides into simple uptake sugars in pancreas such as alpha-amylase, maltase, lactase, sucrase. Interestingly, fiber administration to surviving diabetic rats inhibited considerable the key enzymes related to lipid digestion and absorption as lipase and colipase in pancreas, which leads to notable delay in the absorption of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and a remarkable increase in HDL-cholesterol. Overall, the findings of the current study indicate that galactomanan exhibit attractive properties and strong potential and can, therefore, be considered a promising candidate for future application as therapeutic agents in biotechnological and bioprocess-based technologies, particularly those interested in the development of anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic drugs.

 

THE EFFECTS OF COMPLEX EXERCISE TRAINING ON MUSCLE STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE OF LOWER-EXTREMITY, BALANCE AND GAIT ABILITIES IN ELDERLY PEOPLE WITH DIABETES MELLITUS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

S.W. Lee (1)

1 Department of Physical Therapy, Sahmyook University, Seoul, Korea

 

Older people with diabetes mellitus and neuropathy have a decreased balance and gait abilities. Lower-extremity exercise and balance training increase physical performance in some older adults. Complex exercise training designed to increase physical performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of complex exercise training on muscle strength and endurance of lower-extremity, balance and gait ability in older people with diabetes mellitus. We conducted a randomized controlled trial involving 39 community-dwelling individuals older than 65 years, who have a diabetes mellitus. They were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=19) and control group (n=20). The intervention was an 8-weeks complex exercise training program composed of resistance training and balance training by using elastic band and balance pad. Control group executed no physical training program. Both group had the education of physical health. Outcome measures were muscle strength and endurance of lower-extremity, balance and gait abilities. After a completion of training, there were significantly increased by complex exercise that the strength of knee extension and ankle dorsiflexion, muscle endurance, balance ability, and gait ability (p<.05). Interaction between group and time had a significant effect on the all factors except for step and stride length (p<.05). In conclusion, the complex exercise training improved lower legs muscle strength, muscle endurance, balance and gait ability in elders with diabetes mellitus. These results suggest that elders with diabetes mellitus will be prevented about risk of a fall at all by complex exercise training.

 

DIETARY ANIMAL AND PLANT PROTEIN INTAKE AND THE ASSOCIATIONS WITH OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY INDICATORS IN EUROPEAN ADOLESCENTS: THE HELENA STUDY

Y. Lin (1), I.  Huybrechts (1), M. Gonzales (2), M. Kersting (3), C. Ottevaere (1), C. Vereecken (1), T. Mouratidou (4), E. Grammatikaki (5), G. Frederic (6), M. Ferrari (7), L. Halström (8), M. Sjöström (9), S. Gomez (10), L. Esperanza (10), D. Molnár (11), L.A. Moreno (4), S. De Henauw (1,12), on behalf of the HELENA consortium

1 Unit Nutrition and Food Safety, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

2 Institut für Ernährungs- und Lebensmittelwissenschaften – Ernährungphysiologie, Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms Universität, Germany

3 Research Institute of Child Nutrition Dortmund, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany

4 GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain

5 Dietician- Public Health Nutritionist, Research Associate Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, Greece

6 Faculté de médecine, University of Lille 2, Lille, France

7 Istituto Nazionalen di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione, Italy

8 Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
9 Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
10 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Spain
11 Pécsi Tudományegyetem,University of Pécs, Hungary

12 University College Ghent, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Care Vesalius, Ghent, Belgium

 

Objectives: to evaluate dietary animal and plant protein intakes in European adolescents, and to investigate the associations with anthropometry (BMI z-score, Body fat percentage (BF%)).

Methods: 1804 (47% males) European adolescents (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain and Sweden) aged 12.5-16.5 y completed two non-consecutive computerized 24-h dietary recalls. Mixed linear model analysis was used to investigate the association between animal and plant protein intakes and anthropometry.

Results: mean animal protein intake (58 g/d) contributed most to total protein intake (96 g/d). Animal and plant protein intakes were significantly lower in females than males (P<0.001 for both). The younger age-group (12.5-14.9) consumed significantly less plant protein than the older age-group (15.0-16.9 y) (P<0.001). Furthermore, mixed linear model analysis showed that intakes of total, animal and plant protein were inversely associated with BF% (β=-0.467, P<0.001; β=-0.197, P=0.034; β=-0.237, P<0.001, respectively). However, no significant associations were found between total, animal, plant protein intakes and BMI z-scores.

Conclusion: total, animal and plant protein intakes might decrease the obesity risk of European adolescents via improvement of body composition.

 

DIETARY FIBRE INTAKE AND THE ASSOCIATIONS WITH OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY INDICATORS IN EUROPEAN ADOLESCENTS: THE HELENA STUDY

Y. Lin (1), I.  Huybrechts (1), M. Gonzales (2), M. Kersting (3), T. De Vriendt (1), C. Vereecken (1), T. Mouratidou (4), E. Grammatikaki (5), G. Frederic (6), E. Toti (7), L. Halström (8), M. Sjöström (9), J. Warnberg (10), S. Gomez (10), D. Molnár (11), L.A. Moreno (4), and S. De Henauw (1,12), on behalf of the HELENA consortium

1 Unit Nutrition and Food Safety, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

2 Institut für Ernährungs- und Lebensmittelwissenschaften – Ernährungphysiologie. Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms Universität, Germany

3 Research Institute of Child Nutrition Dortmund, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn (Germany)

4 GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain

5 Dietician- Public Health Nutritionist, Research Associate Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, Greece

6  Faculté de médecine, University of Lille, Lille, France

7 Istituto Nazionalen di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione, Italy

8 Karolinska Institutet, Sweden

9 Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden

10 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Spain

11 Pécsi Tudományegyetem, University of Pécs, Hungary

12 University College Ghent, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Care Vesalius, Ghent, Belgium

 

Objectives: to evaluate total dietary fibre (DF) intake in European adolescents, and to investigate the associations between total, water-soluble and water-insoluble DF intakes and anthropometry (BMI z-score and Body fat percentage (BF%)).

Methods: 1804 (47% males) European adolescents (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain and Sweden) aged 12.5-16.5 y completed two non-consecutive computerized 24-h dietary recalls. Mixed linear model analysis was used to investigate the association between total, water-soluble and water-insoluble DF intakes and anthropometry.

Results: mean intake of DF (20 g/d) was significantly lower in females and the younger age-group (12.5-14.9) than in males and the older age-group (15.0-16.9 y) (P<0.001for both). However after adjustment for energy intake, DF intake was significantly lower in males (7.8 g/(d*1000kcal) than in females (8.9 g/(d*1000kcal) (P<0.001). In addition, obese subjects were observed to have the lowest energy-adjusted DF intake (8.1g/(d*1000kcal)). Furthermore, mixed linear model analysis showed that total, watersoluble and water-insoluble DF intakes, were inversely associated with BF% (β=-0.117, P<0.001; β=-0.028, P=0.002; β=-0.091, P<0.001, respectively). However, no significant associations were found between total, water-soluble and water-insoluble DF intakes and BMI z-score.

Conclusion: total, energy-adjusted, water-soluble and water-insoluble DF might play a role in the prevention of obesity in European adolescents by improving body composition.

 

VISUAL STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON RESULTS OF HBA1c AS AN EFFECT OF THE DIET BREAD CONSUMING IN PRILEP, MACEDONIA

Z. Savoski (1), S. Savoska (2), S. Loskovska (3)

1 General Hospital Prilep, Macedonia

2 Faculty of Administration and Management of Information Systems, UKLO Bitola, Macedonia

3 FEIT, UKIM Skopje, Macedonia

 

The aim of this study is to check how diet broad influence to people with diabetes of the level of HbA1c.

In the project were participated 80 randomly picked volunteers, from which 64 will consume diet bread and will measure level of the blood sugar, and 8 volunteers will just measure level of the blood sugar without consuming diet bread. The condition was: all volunteers to observe toward proposed directions for interim prescribed diet and use and receive therapy proposed by a doctor. The volunteers were do measure of the blood level sugar twice a week.

The volunteers were separated in two bigger groups – insulin dependent and non-dependent, but also in fifth groups by years. The results are statistical processed and visually presented. During the project, we have made an education about diabetes to all volunteers. The education goes individually during measure of blood sugar level and in groups during meetings. People exchange theirs experiences and tell their opinions for the quality and amount of the diet bread and about measured results of the blood sugar level. The average enhancement of HbA1c was 1.9%, in the volunteers who have made just measuring just 0.9%. The best results was gained from insulin non-dependent between 50-60 years–2.4% and the worst in children just 0.7%. As a conclusion at this moment we may say that consuming of diet bread decrease blood level sugar, but also a big influence in this have a education of people with diabetes.

 

A STUDY OF % BODY FAT AND OTHER HEALTH RELATED VARIABLES DUE TO EXERCISE & DRINKING HABITS ON PRE & POST-MENOPAUSE OF FEMALE

J.H. Yoo (1)

1 Sahmyook University, Seoul, Korea

 

Lack of physical activity has been shown to play a major role in gaining body fat. Conversely, regular exercise is an important factor in promoting the loss of body fat. Most world population consume alcoholic beverages. However, alcohol may have both protective and harmful effects on health. The purpose of the this study was to examine the comparison of % body fat and other health related variables due to exercise & drinking habits on pre and post-menopause of female. Using a cross-sectional approach, we studied 508 women (respectively, pre menopausal 215, post menopausal 293). Subjects were divided into 3 groups depended on exercise habit (sedentary, exercise less than twice a week and more than three time a week) also, 2 groups depended on drinking habit(not drink and drink less than twice a week), respectively. We measured % body fat and other health related fitness included bone mineral density. Measured other health related physical fitness include % of body fat, maximum oxygen consumption, grip strength, sit & reach, reaction time and closed one leg stand. In pre-menopause, exclude sit & reach, physical fitness and bone mineral density showed no significant difference among the exercise habits. Also, comparing with the non-drinkers, the drinkers had no significant differences in bone mineral density and physical fitness levels. In post-menopause, % of body fat and bone mineral density showed significant differences among the exercise habits. Also, bone mineral density of drinkers showed a higher tendency than non-drinkers, but physical fitness had no significant differences between the groups.

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